UK Thermography
Predictive & Preventative Maintenance Service


     P660T600T400FLIR ThermaCam PM 695

Thermographic Surveys and Thermal Imaging Services. 

As part of routine maintenance electrical Thermal imaging is an indispensable tool to find faults before visible damage or fire occurs. Many components appear visually ok on initial inspection and can also function test ok however, some faults are only discovered when it is too late, or catastrophic failure occurs. This can lead to costly down time, equipment damage or worse still fire. Periodic electrical thermographic surveys can help reduce expensive down time and unexpected component failure. Although this service is not a replacement for regular planned maintenance, many electrical components are non user serviceable and give no or little warning when they are about to fail. Most faults are discovered when differential or abnormally high temperatures are present, but how hot is a fault? What’s good heat and bad heat? That's where we come in! Over 20 years working with electrical equipment and 13 of those specialising in electrical thermography gives us on the spot knowledge of what's good and bad heat. Our Thermographic Surveys and comprehensive reporting format give you accurate and concise information on what's at fault and the best remedial course to take to correct it. With our infrared cameras we survey your equipment, where possible, starting from 11kv supply and transformers (where site owned or access is available) then progress down to switch rooms, distribution and localised control equipment on production lines. We don't just scratch the surface we cover everything that is accessible and suitable for monitoring. Historical data is retained for each item of equipment monitored and where necessary graphs created for SPC data. UK Thermography dont just offer electrical thermography, below is a list of just a few of our thermal imaging services we offer throughout the UK...

  • Electrical Thermal Surveys
Periodic predictive maintenance by means of electrical thermographic surveys can help save time fault finding and unexpected down time due to component failure.
Thermography is non contact so equipment can be safely monitored whilst live and also equipment such as HV ceramic insulators and exposed pole switch terminals checked degradation.
  • Power generation Thermal Surveys
Monitor degradation of insulation and heating systems. Insulation defects on industrial boilers can be costly and reduce heating efficiency. Pulverised fuel is highly abrasive and cause pipework to fail, Thermal imaging can help see where pipe and duct linings are damaged enabling you to target specific areas for refurbishment. Fuel storage can be a potential fire hazard when stored in large quantities, Infrared imaging can monitor areas storage mounds for temperature rise and give early warning.
  • Product Development Thermal Imaging Services -
Every product starts its life in development. these are usually tested for thermal and environmental effectiveness and limitations. Equipment efficiency, product temperature monitoring, and heat insulation, conduction and radiation are just a few of these that can be monitored using infrared thermography. Other examples are clothing development, safety ergonomics from safety equipment to leisurewear. Plastic extrusion and vacuum moulding can be monitored to ensure temperatures are equal across surface areas ensuring consistant product reproduction. The list is endless.
  • Infrared Electrical Thermal Survey Training -
UK Thermography offer a range of thermographic training services, from 'an introduction to thermal imaging' to 'advanced electrical survey training' please see our training section for information on infrared traing and courses we can offer.
  • Geological Thermal Surveys -
Underground and underfloor heating defects can be difficult to detect and locate. thermal imaging equipment can be used to locate leaks and defects without excavating large areas to locate these faults. From underground heating supply lines to floor heating. locating disused mine shaft fires is one area thermogaphy can be used.
  • Medical Thermology -
Thermology is a non invasive technique that can be used to examine patients giving results quickly with no adverse effects. Surface temperature analysis, injury healing monitoring, blood flow and circulation, Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (vibration white finger) can be tested for and monitored using this technique. This field is developing continuously and now cameras have increased resolution images can be analysed with pinpoint accuracy.
  • Veterinary Thermology - 
Non contact indication of sprains and injuries in mammals; equine, feline and canine is sometime required for both safety and welfare reasons. Infrared imaging can see inflammation and blood flow to areas in question form a safe distance with little impact on livestock, other than the presence of the thermographer, giving indication of underlying problems and injury healing.
  • Tank Sediment Monitoring - 
Thermography can help Identify sediment within fluid or powder storage vestal's reducing costly internal inspections and storage efficiency. All storage tanks can build up sediment over time, how much depends on the process and products being stored. Sediment can cause inaccurate readings of tank levels and also degradation that can only be seen when a vessel breach is apparent.
  • Refractory Thermal Surveys - 
Degradation of refractory linings, insulation properties, kiln coating fractures and efficiency are just a few examples where thermographic imaging can give clear indication and detect faults early. This can help plan downtime for refurbishment and repairs making your plant more efficient.
  • Cold Store Heat Gain and Loss Thermal Surveys -
Reduce heat gain and increase cooling efficiency by using our thermographic services, Check for insulation defects and create temperature maps of cold storage areas ensuring products are stored in the correct environments prolonging product life.
  • Domestic Home Insulation Thermal Surveys - 
All houses suffer from heat loss in one form or another. Depending how efficient the insulation is can save hundreds even thousands of pounds in some cases over the year in lost energy. This is not only a financial cost it has an Evironmental impact. Heat loss through construction materials, roofing, air leaks on window frames, doors etc can be identified and measures put in place to reduce thermal loss. Heating systems over time can develop sediment in radiators, tanks and pipework. Thermal cameras can be used to checks for this and highlight where maintenance and servicing is required. Additional services include rising damp detection, masonry decay, vermin detection, structural degradation, location of cavities and braces.
  • Building Water Ingress Thermal Surveys - 
Flat roof's commonly suffer from water ingress. These can sometimes be difficult to locate due to water tracking causing an internal leak several meters away from the source. Periodic thermographic inspections can hep identify areas of concern before water barriers fail and show internally allowing small repairs to be carried out rather than full coating replacement.  insulation degradation, construction material water retention, and rising damp can also be seen clearly with the use of thermal cameras. Areas of moisture trapped in roofing layers can be seen and traced with our thermal imaging services and high end infrared cameras.

USALD (Ultrasonic Air Leak Detection) 

Air leaks are not only annoying they are very costly in many ways. Some equipment requires constant and stable pressure to operate correctly and efficiently. Compressed air supply lines developing leaks over time can go unnoticed as these are often located at a high level out of sight. It is mainly when the leak shows a problem such as loss of, or reduction in pressure that these are discovered. This can lead to variation in quality of products and output performance. A single moderate air leak, on a medium pressurised system can cost as much as £8000 per year in wasted energy! This not only costs money it also puts un necessary wear on compressors having to work harder and more often to keep up with demand. A simple USALD survey can be done usually in a day depending on the size of your site and costs a fraction of what you could be losing. Surveys are carried out using an ultrasonic device that is able to locate precise points where seals and joints are failing. The pipe work is traced from supply to output and any failures along the line tagged and logged. A USALD survey report is then produced giving you a comprehensive picture of your compressed air systems health and required remedial action.

Vibration Analysis  

Equipment operating at speed naturally vibrates, when things start to fail it is sometimes too late to plan downtime and this can lead to a costly breakdown. Regular predictive maintenance can help reduce the risk of this occurrence. Using our VA equipment in line with regular maintenance can pick up faults long before they become problematic. An example of this is a primary crusher on a quarry. Most moving parts have various types of bearings. The 2 main components for example will have bearings, the motor and the crusher head. Naturally these give off a frequency which is normal. If this frequency is monitored at regular intervals changes can be picked up using vibration analysis. This could be caused by low or poor lubrication, degradation of parts or insecurity to mention a few. If any of these fail this key piece of plant machinery may stop production until an emergency repair is carried out. If this fault was picked up several months before this failure, planned maintenance could be arranged thus reducing production loss. Our VA services offer a cost effective way to help your maintenance team plan for repairs and also give a comprehensive report on your equipments health over time. Contact us for more information.

Site Health Surveys 

We all know that site audits and VIP visits from clients or insurance suppliers can be stressful and painstaking. Working along side you and your team we can offer a visual general health check and compile a report and imagery to highlight areas needing improvement. These surveys give an overall first impression standard of your site such as housekeeping, equipment maintenance, and general site condition. These surveys are aimed to advise sites on where improvements need to be made prior to a VIP visit or audit and help these run more smoothly. We visit your site and compile a comprehensive report on things that may be overlooked such as debris in equipment, covers missing from distribution, floor coating condition, fluid leaks or spills in plant rooms and potential H&S hazards that we may come across.

Oil Particle Analysis & Condition Testing 

All lubricants degrade over time but what is in these oils can give you lots of information about your equipment's condition and unseen wear and tear. Sending a small sample of lubricant from a piece of your plant equipment for analysis can identify traces of foreign objects giving you an indication of internal component health. Maintaining a high standard of lubrication is key to equipments lifespan this simple process can save you unnecessary lubricant changes and prolong the life of equipment.

PAT (Portable Appliance Testing) Services 

Why do I need Portable Appliance Testing?

British law (the Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 ) requires that all electrical systems (including electrical appliances) are maintained (so far as is reasonably practicable) to prevent danger. A competent person must inspect the installation regularly in any public building or a place that people work; private houses do not need this test. Guidance from the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET, published under the IEE brand) and the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) suggest initial intervals for combined inspection and testing that range from three months (for construction equipment) to one year for inspection and, in many cases, longer periods for testing (certain types of appliance in schools, hotels, offices and shops).

The European Low Voltage Directive governs the manufacture or importation of electrical appliances. Compliance to this has to be declared and indicated by the display of the CE mark on the product. The responsibility for this lies with the manufacturer or the importer and is policed by the Trading Standards. However, it is important to have a maintenance regime for electrical appliances. The implementation of this is up to employers. The HSE or the local authority is responsible for the policing of this.

Not only does PAT testing ensure your appliances are safe to use, there are a number of other reasons why appliances should be PAT tested on a regular basis. Some of the most important reasons are:
  • It ensures you comply with the The Electricity at Work Regulations 1989; Section 4(2) This requires all Portable Appliances to be accurately assessed by regular inspection and testing, so that the appliance in question can be confirmed as safe to use
  • To assure you that all of your portable appliances, e.g. hand tools, microwaves, drinks machines, kettles, computers, fridges, extension leads are safe to use. PAT testing satisfies these Health and Safety regulation.
  • It comply's with the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999
  • It also comply's with all Health & Safety at Work Act 1974; Section 2 of this requires all employers are to ensure that any appliances comply with the regulations of the Act, and that the employer is responsible in so far as is reasonably practicable in making sure that all relevant equipment is safe to use and without risk to health.
  • PAT Testing minimise's the risk of fire and injury caused by electrical appliances
  • It helps you satisfy the requirements your Insurance Company
  • To supply Fire Officers and Health & Safety Inspectors with PAT testing certificates and records

What does PAT testing involve?

The tests an appliance is required to undergo will depend on the type of appliance, it's electrical Class and subject to a risk assessment by the technician. i.e. it may not be safe to perform a leakage current test which powers up the appliance, such as a grinder, if it can not be secured to a bench; an insulation resistance test may be a safe option.

Earth Resistance Test

This test shows the resistance offered by the earthing rods with the connection leads. Various testing instruments are available for earthing resistance tests. The earthing resistance should be less than 5 Ohm.

Earth continuity test

The equipment shall have a measured resistance of the protective earth circuit, or the earthing conductor of an extension cord or appliance cord set, which does not exceed 1Ω.

Testing is performed using an ohmmeter or PAT tester;

  • Using the ohmmeter to produce a reading;
  • Using a PAT tester under the following conditions;
    • 12V maximum, test current range 100mA to 200mA - commonly known as "earth continuity test" or "screen test"
    • 12V maximum, test current 10A - commonly known as "routine test" and/or
    • 12V maximum, 1.5 times rated current of appliance or 25A, which ever is greater - commonly known as "type test" or "bond test".

The choice of which test(s) to use is at the operator's discretion as there is merit in each test for given situations, however the "routine test" is seldom used by competent persons as it simply replicates existing conditions for the (240V/10A) appliance and therefore the results are regarded as being of little test value.

Insulation resistance test

A leakage current test performed at rated voltage with values not exceeding 5mA for Class I appliances or 1mA for Class II appliances.

Alternatively, measure insulation resistance values are not less than 1MΩ for Class I and Class II appliances at 500 V d.c. or alternatively, to avoid the equipment apparently failing the test because the metal oxide varistors (MOVs), or electro-magnetic interference (EMI) suppression has triggered, for equipment containing voltage limiting devices such as MOVs, or EMI suppression, at 250 V d.c.

Leakage Current testing is performed using a PAT by applying a nominal voltage to the live conductors (active and neutral) of an appliance, and placing 0 volt reference on the earthed parts of a Class I appliance or the external metal parts of a Class II appliance;

  • Nominal voltage is 230V AC. (therefore it can not be performed with a digital multimeter)

Insulation Resistance testing is performed using an ohmmeter or portable appliance tester by applying a nominal voltage to the live conductors (active and neutral) of an appliance, and placing 0 volt reference on the earthed parts of a Class I appliance or the external metal parts of a Class II appliance;

  • Nominal voltage is 500V d.c (250 V d.c. may be used for equipment containing MOVs / EMI filtering)

A deficiency of the Insulation Resistance (500V/250V d.c) test is that the d.c voltage will not activate electromagnetic switches or internal relays etc. that are common in many modern power tools, computers, TVs etc. and therefore it can only test the appliance up to that point. Appliances with these components / design should be tested used the leakage current test.

Polarity check

Polarity testing is a simple test that can be carried out using a polarity tester to determine whether the active and neutral of the plug end are correctly connected to the corresponding terminals at the socket end. Note: The earth is tested during the earth continuity test. As per BS7671, the phase ('Live' or 'Hot') cable should connect with right hand side terminal of the socket (if we face the socket outlet).


  • The order (polarity) of the pins of a three pin flat pin plug, to their connections, shall be Earth (radial pin – green/yellow wire), Neutral (light blue wire) and then Active (brown wire), in a clockwise direction, when viewed from the front of the plug looking at the pins.

Cord extension sockets

  • The order (polarity) of the socket apertures of a three pin flat pin socket, to their connections, shall be Earth (radial pin – green/yellow wire), Active (brown wire) and then Neutral (light blue wire), in a clockwise direction, when viewed from the front of the socket looking at the apertures.

RCDs /ELCB's / Safety Switches

There are two tests methods to be used;

Press Button

This test requires specific test equipment RCD tester:

The RCD tester should be connected with the socket, with earth terminal (must !!) and 1)select the testing range 'delta' (10mA,30mA,100mA,300mA,500mA). 2)Select half delta range, and press TEST button - the RCD should not operate, this ensures against nuisance tripping. 3)Select delta range, and press TEST button - The RCD should operate, within m Sec for 50Hz,230V system (as per BS 7671)

Applied current

This test requires specialised test equipment, knowledge and training;

  • A current, equal to the rated tripping current, shall be “suddenly” applied between active and protective earth and the operating time measured with maximum trip time 40ms for Type I and 300ms for Type II.

In addition to this, many technicians also test;

  • using 1/2 (half) the rated tripping current to detect nuisance tripping.
  • using 5 times rated tripping current, with trip times reduced accordingly, to simulate high current exposure.
  • under 0 degree and 180 degree phases

Best Practice is to test the RCD under 1/2, 1X and 5X rated tripping current, each at both the 0 degree and 180 degree phases.

Class of construction

Electrical appliance classes are differentiated by a series of IEC protection classes. The protocols for PAT Testing vary by appliance class.

  • Class I  – Single insulated wiring, which requires an earth connection. There is no symbol for a Class I product so if a rating plate has no symbol on it then it is usually Class I.
  • Class II  – Double insulated wiring, therefore no need for an earth lead. Class II is indicated by double box.
  • Class III  – These are appliances that are supplied at a low voltage (usually called Separated Extra Low Voltage) which must be less than 50 V. These appliances are supplied with a transformer supply that is also marked.

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